Science Page: Porcine Deltacoronavirus positive cases in the US: Where are we today?

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, we are sharing a report from the MSHMP team regarding the prevalence of Porcine Deltacoronavirus in the US herds participation in MSHMP.

Key Points

  • Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the US in 2014.
  • Monitoring of PDCoV cases showed that it is still present in pig herds from the United States.
  • PDCoV testing and reporting must continue in order to increase our understanding of the disease.

Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first detected in the US in 2014. The complete genome of a United States’ PDCoV isolate was characterized by Marthaler et al. (2014), which was ~99% similar to a virus detected in Hong Kong.

Clinical signs may be similar to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) and Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV), including acute diarrhea, mild to moderate vomiting, and ultimately death especially in neonatal pigs.

PDCoV continues to be present in the United States swine herd. Since March, 2017 PDCoV cases have been passively reported to MSHMP. Over this period of time, 37 cases have been reported by six participant systems.

MSHMP Porcine deltacoronavirus prevalence US 2017-2018
Monthly number of PDCoV cases since March 2017

Since November 2017, 24 PDCoV cases were communicated to MSHMP, representing 67% of the reported cases.

PDCoV still occurs in the US at an apparent low number of reported cases. Swine producers and veterinarians must stay vigilant for clinical signs compatible with PDCoV and continue to test for this pathogen.

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