Rotaviruses are responsible for increased mortality in neonatal swine populations. They are different genetically and more studies are needed to characterize their diversity. This is the objective of this study coordinated by Dr. Marthaler’s lab focusing on rotaviruses strains found in Canada.
Viral proteins 7 and 4 are used for rotavirus A classification.
Rotaviruses are classified based on two viral proteins (VP) found on their outer capsid called respectively VP7 and VP4. Those two proteins are also essential to induce an efficient immune response against the virus. This project characterized VP7 and VP4 sequences in 136 Canadian samples and compared them with the strains used in a rotavirus commercial vaccine.
The VP7 (n=32) and partial VP4 (n=25) were analyzed, identifying the G3P, G5P, G5P[x], G9P, G9P, G9P, and G9P[x] genotypes.
Minimal differences in the antigenic epitopes for the G5, G9, and P strains were identified.
Major differences in the antigenic epitopes of the G3, P, and P may question the effectiveness of the ProSystems RCE RVA.
Surveillance of Rotavirus A (RVA) infections in North America swine populations are limited and not performed over a significant time period to properly assess the diversity of RVA strains in swine. The VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genes of 32 Canadian RVA strains, circulating between 2009 and 2015 were sequenced, identifying the G3P, G5P, G9P, G9, and G9 genotype combinations. The Canadian RVA strains were compared to the RVA strains present in the swine ProSystems RCE rotavirus vaccine. The comparison revealed multiple amino acid differences in the G and P antigenic epitopes, regardless of the G and P genotypes but specifically in the Canadian G3, P and P genotypes. Our study further contributes to the characterization of RVA’s evolution and disease mitigation among swine, which may optimize target vaccine design, thereby minimizing RVA disease in this economically important animal population.
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent enzootic pneumonia, an economically significant disease in pigs. In this study published by Drs. Pieters and Rovira from the University of Minnesota, pigs experimentally inoculated with M.hyopneumoniae were sampled 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, and 28 post-inoculation.
Different sample types were compared:
Using different diagnostic tests:
ELISA IgG anti M.hyopneumoniae
ELISA Ig M anti M.hyopneumoniae
ELISA C-reactive protein
Laryngeal swab samples tested by PCR were highly sensitive for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in live pigs.
Various commercial ELISA kits for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies showed similar sensitivity.
Oral fluids showed a low sensitivity for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in experimentally infected pigs.
Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in live pigs during the early stages of infection is critical for timely implementation of control measures, but is technically challenging. This study compared the sensitivity of various sample types and diagnostic methods for detection of M. hyopneumoniae during the first 28 days after experimental exposure. Twenty-one 8-week old pigs were intra-tracheally inoculated on day 0 with M. hyopneumoniae strain 232. Two age matched pigs were mock inoculated and maintained as negative controls. On post-inoculation days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21 and 28, nasal swabs, laryngeal swabs, tracheobronchial lavage fluid, and blood samples were obtained from each pig and oral fluid samples were obtained from each room in which pigs were housed. Serum samples were assayed by ELISA for IgM and IgG M. hyopneumoniae antibodies and C-reactive protein. All other samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae DNA by species-specific real-time PCR. Serum antibodies (IgG) to M. hyopneumoniae were detected in challenge-inoculated pigs on days 21 and 28. M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected in samples from experimentally inoculated pigs beginning at 5 days post-inoculation. Laryngeal swabs at all samplings beginning on day 5 showed the highest sensitivity for M. hyopneumoniae DNA Detection, while oral fluids showed the lowest sensitivity. Although laryngeal swabs are not considered the typical M. hyopneumoniae diagnostic sample, under the conditions of this study laryngeal swabs tested by PCR proved to be a practical and reliable diagnostic sample for M. hyopneumoniae detection in vivo during early-stage infection.
Swine and poultryviruses, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), are economically important pathogens that can spread via aerosols. The reliability of methods for quantifying particle-associated viruses as well as the sizedistribution of aerosolized particles bearing these viruses under field conditions are not well documented. We compared the performance of 2 size-differentiating airsamplers in disease outbreaks that occurred in swine and poultry facilities. Both airsamplers allowed quantification of particles by size, and measured concentrations of PRRSV, PEDV, and HPAIV stratified by particle size both within and outside swine and poultry facilities. All 3 viruses were detectable in association with aerosolized particles. Proportions of positive sampling events were 69% for PEDV, 61% for HPAIV, and 8% for PRRSV. The highest virus concentrations were found with PEDV, followed by HPAIV and PRRSV. Both air collectors performed equally for the detection of total virus concentration. For all 3 viruses, higher numbers of RNA copies were associated with larger particles; however, a bimodal distribution of particles was observed in the case of PEDV and HPAIV.
Dr. Matt Sturos, diagnostic pathologist at the University of Minnesota, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory will be presenting the latest information on Senecavirus A in swine, tomorrow at 4pm in a learning session organized by the Minnesota Veterinary Medical Association (MVMA). Participants can join in person at the MVMA conference room or online via WebEX.
The Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) is a National program coordinated by Dr. Bob Morrison from the University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine. The goal of this initiative is to monitor the incidence and prevalence of relevant swine diseases in the US such as Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) or Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) for example. Participants are voluntarily sharing the health status of their farms in order to better understand, and in the future, control these illnesses. Each week participants receive a report including a one-page summary of a scientific fact of interest. From now on, the Science Page will be published on the blog here, every Friday.