Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent enzootic pneumonia, an economically significant disease in pigs. In this study published by Drs. Pieters and Rovira from the University of Minnesota, pigs experimentally inoculated with M.hyopneumoniae were sampled 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, and 28 post-inoculation.
Different sample types were compared:
Using different diagnostic tests:
ELISA IgG anti M.hyopneumoniae
ELISA Ig M anti M.hyopneumoniae
ELISA C-reactive protein
Laryngeal swab samples tested by PCR were highly sensitive for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in live pigs.
Various commercial ELISA kits for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies showed similar sensitivity.
Oral fluids showed a low sensitivity for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in experimentally infected pigs.
Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in live pigs during the early stages of infection is critical for timely implementation of control measures, but is technically challenging. This study compared the sensitivity of various sample types and diagnostic methods for detection of M. hyopneumoniae during the first 28 days after experimental exposure. Twenty-one 8-week old pigs were intra-tracheally inoculated on day 0 with M. hyopneumoniae strain 232. Two age matched pigs were mock inoculated and maintained as negative controls. On post-inoculation days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21 and 28, nasal swabs, laryngeal swabs, tracheobronchial lavage fluid, and blood samples were obtained from each pig and oral fluid samples were obtained from each room in which pigs were housed. Serum samples were assayed by ELISA for IgM and IgG M. hyopneumoniae antibodies and C-reactive protein. All other samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae DNA by species-specific real-time PCR. Serum antibodies (IgG) to M. hyopneumoniae were detected in challenge-inoculated pigs on days 21 and 28. M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected in samples from experimentally inoculated pigs beginning at 5 days post-inoculation. Laryngeal swabs at all samplings beginning on day 5 showed the highest sensitivity for M. hyopneumoniae DNA Detection, while oral fluids showed the lowest sensitivity. Although laryngeal swabs are not considered the typical M. hyopneumoniae diagnostic sample, under the conditions of this study laryngeal swabs tested by PCR proved to be a practical and reliable diagnostic sample for M. hyopneumoniae detection in vivo during early-stage infection.
Swine and poultryviruses, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), are economically important pathogens that can spread via aerosols. The reliability of methods for quantifying particle-associated viruses as well as the sizedistribution of aerosolized particles bearing these viruses under field conditions are not well documented. We compared the performance of 2 size-differentiating airsamplers in disease outbreaks that occurred in swine and poultry facilities. Both airsamplers allowed quantification of particles by size, and measured concentrations of PRRSV, PEDV, and HPAIV stratified by particle size both within and outside swine and poultry facilities. All 3 viruses were detectable in association with aerosolized particles. Proportions of positive sampling events were 69% for PEDV, 61% for HPAIV, and 8% for PRRSV. The highest virus concentrations were found with PEDV, followed by HPAIV and PRRSV. Both air collectors performed equally for the detection of total virus concentration. For all 3 viruses, higher numbers of RNA copies were associated with larger particles; however, a bimodal distribution of particles was observed in the case of PEDV and HPAIV.
Dr. Matt Sturos, diagnostic pathologist at the University of Minnesota, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory will be presenting the latest information on Senecavirus A in swine, tomorrow at 4pm in a learning session organized by the Minnesota Veterinary Medical Association (MVMA). Participants can join in person at the MVMA conference room or online via WebEX.
The Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) is a National program coordinated by Dr. Bob Morrison from the University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine. The goal of this initiative is to monitor the incidence and prevalence of relevant swine diseases in the US such as Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) or Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) for example. Participants are voluntarily sharing the health status of their farms in order to better understand, and in the future, control these illnesses. Each week participants receive a report including a one-page summary of a scientific fact of interest. From now on, the Science Page will be published on the blog here, every Friday.
In this meta-analysis conducted by the Center for Veterinary Health Surveillance (Madrid, Spain) in collaboration with Drs. Conrado, Perez, and Alvarez from the University of Minnesota, the efficacy of vaccination to control Salmonella infection in pigs was evaluated. The meta-analysis reviewed a total of 44 studies focusing on Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella choleraesuis. Included protocols were using either inactivated (killed) or live-attenuated vaccines.
Results showed that both vaccine types had a similar efficacy and that the most successful control strategies among the ones reviewed were using killed vaccines to control Salmonella choleraesuis.
Abstract: Consumption or handling of improperly processed or cooked pork is considered one of the top sources for foodborne salmonellosis, a common cause of intestinal disease worldwide. Asymptomatic carrier pigs may contaminate pork at slaughtering; therefore, pre-harvest reduction of Salmonella load can contribute to reduce public health risk. Multiple studies have evaluated the impact of vaccination on controlling Salmonella in swine farms, but results are highly variable due to the heterogeneity in vaccines and vaccination protocols. Here, we report the results of an inclusive systematic review and a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed scientific literature to provide updated knowledge on the potential effectiveness of Salmonella vaccination. A total of 126 articles describing the use of Salmonella vaccines in swine were identified, of which 44 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies (36/44) used live vaccines, and S. Typhimurium and S. Choleraesuis were the predominant serotypes evaluated. Vaccine efficacy was most often measured through bacteriological isolation, and pooled estimates of vaccine efficacy were obtained as the difference in the percentage of positive animals when available. Attenuated and inactivated vaccines had similar efficacy [Risk Difference = − 26.8% (− 33.8, − 19.71) and − 29.5% (− 44.4, − 14.5), respectively]. No serotype effect was observed on the efficacy recorded for attenuated vaccines; however, a higher efficacy of inactivated vaccines against S. Choleraesuis was observed, though in a reduced sample.
Results from the meta-analysis here demonstrate the impact that vaccination may have on the control of Salmonella in swine farms and could help in the design of programs to minimize the risk of transmission of certain serotypes through the food chain.