Swine Disease Global Surveillance Report: bi-monthly update

The new swine disease global surveillance report was released earlier this week. Coordinated by the University of Minnesota in collaboration with the Swine Health Information Center, the aim of these reports is to have a structure for near real-time identification of hazards. In this report, updates are focusing on African Swine Fever in China and Belgium, Classical Swine Fever in Brazil and Japan, Foot and Mouth Disease in Colombia.

African Swine Fever

CHINA

Since last August, 30 outbreaks of ASF have been reported in China spreading through nine provinces. So far in October, seven outbreaks occurred, five of them in the province of Liaoning in the northeast of the country where the first case was reported two months ago. This peak in the number of outbreaks suggests the situation still remains far from
under control.

BELGIUM

Belgium keeps investigating the presence of the disease in the wild boar population. Fences and gates were built aiming to isolate an area, but so far 84 animals were detected positive since the first detection of the disease in the country, on September 13. There are several theories regarding introduction of the virus in this region in Europe and the role people play in carrying swine by-products or even hunting materials into this region is being discussed and investigated.

Classical Swine Fever

BRAZIL

On October 8, Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) reported an outbreak of CSF in a backyard free-range farm located in the state of Ceará (Forquilha-CE). The outbreak was reported to the veterinary service, where high mortality rates and clinical signs (anorexia, fever, incoordination) were observed in sows and younger pigs. The fatality rate was 97 percent and the remaining animals were euthanized. The farm was then isolated followed by the euthanasia for the animals, sanitary destruction of carcasses, disinfection, a restriction of movements in the region, and an initiation of an investigation in surrounding farms.

JAPAN

One month after the identification of the outbreak of CSF in Japan, investigations were implemented in the region of Gifu Prefecture, along with 25 other Prefectures. Overall, 19 wild boars were found positive (15 percent) for CSF in Gifu, and no positive animals were identified elsewhere. Investigations are ongoing.

Foot and Mouth Disease

Currently, the following countries have reported the presence of FMD in swine: China, Colombia, South Korea, North Korea, and Russia.

COLOMBIA

On October 10, the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA, by its Spanish acronym) reported an outbreak of FMD in a swine farm, located in the Departamento de Cesar, north of the country and very close to the Venezuelan border. Ten days prior, another outbreak was identified in cattle, in a city located approximately 500 miles (800km) away, in Departamento de Boyaca. Both regions have vaccination coverage and were recognized as “free with vaccination” on December 2017.

The full report with maps and location of the various outbreaks is available to read here.

 

ASF update: Swine Disease Global Surveillance bi-monthly report

This report was published by the Swine Health Information Center and prepared by the University of Minnesota.

Epidemiological Situation

Belgium

On September 14th, the OIE official report of the 1st ASF case in Belgium was released, confirming our previous report. On Saturday, 15th, the Federal Agriculture minister confirmed three new cases in the same area of the initial report, identified in wild boars found dead in the city of Etalle (Luxembourg province), near the border with France.

On Friday evening, a multisectoral meeting took place in Belgium, where the farming, meat and animal feed sectors asked for priority measures against the spread of African Swine Fever to be in place. In the joint statement coming from that meeting, they draw up five possible critical needs/measures to mitigate the disease spreading: a European plan to define and maintain the affected zone; the creation of a committee dedicated to the export of meat and pork products; a regulated slaughtering and butchering method for pigs in the area which is under tight surveillance; a realistic and feasible plan to reduce the boar population in the country; and finally the creation of a crisis communication committee.

Arrangements are being done to ban the movement, hunting and feeding of wild boars in the region to control the spread of the disease by human interaction. An investigation and monitoring program is being implemented, with the support of European experts.

China

With the reporting of two new outbreaks today (September 14th), unofficially, there have been 21 ASF outbreaks reported in China. The last two reported outbreaks included (a) 16 hogs with sudden death in the Inner Mongolian Province, and (b) a farm in Henan Province, with 148 infected pigs and 43% fatality rate. Officially, however, the OIE WAHIS platform still reports only 19 outbreaks in six provinces (Figures 1 and 2). Although the cause of ASF introduction into China remains unclear, in March, 2018, FAO alerted for the risk of introduction of ASF into the country by illegal introduction of animals or food. There are also concerns that, similarly to what has been reported in Europe, wild boars may play a role in the spread of the disease.

Control Activities

Approximately 40,500 pigs have been culled since the beginning of the epidemic, with mortality rates that varied between 0 and 23.17% (Figure 1). The Chinese government reported checking pigs in thousands of sites, which may have resulted in the increase of the identification of new outbreaks. In an attempt to contain the spread of the disease, all transport of live animals from infected provinces is restricted, feed policy is being adjusted to the current scenario, and the logistics of the industry and the Chinese market are being reviewed. On September 13th, the use of food waste and pig blood as feed for pigs in ASF-infected and neighboring provinces was banned. Also, testing pig feed to ASF will be required, and positive samples will trigger destruction of the whole batch of feed.

Disease Impact

China is considering to import meat from other markets, including the European Union, that in 2017 faced an intense decline in pork exports. US hog market is also currently facing a low price market, however with expansion in number of sows and pork produced. International trade is at risk once ASF is spreading rapidly into consolidated markets like Europe and China, and concerns are growing around the globe.

 

Figure 1: Summary of outbreaks of African Swine Fever in China. Nineteen outbreaks were reported to OIE, in 6 provinces: Lianoning, Henan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Heilongjiang (Source: OIE – WAHIS).

 

Figure 2: Chinese provinces with reported ASF outbreaks (Lianoning, Henan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Heilongjiang). The intensity of the green shade depicts the number of culled animals, with the Province of Liaoning (darkest green) showing the highest cull rate.