Leman Conference in Spanish Invitation

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

During November 16-17th 2022, the University of Minnesota Swine Group will be hosting our second virtual Leman Conference exclusively in Spanish,
which includes important topics in health, biosecurity, production, emerging diseases, and sustainability. This virtual event is a great opportunity for
Spanish-speaking individuals working in U.S. pig production systems. The conference will have two keynote sessions that will cover the current ASF
situation in the Dominican Republic and the nutritional and feeding strategies when feed ingredients are costly. In addition, we will have 17
presentations dedicated to respiratory disease control; Senecavirus diagnostics, control, and elimination; strategies for decreasing mortality in all
production stages; best biosecurity practices, and sustainability programs presented by industry leaders. We will also have a diagnostic workshop that
will feature a practical necropsy session with best practices to perform post-mortem examinations. Monday is the last day to register! Register online at: https://lemanespanol.umn.edu/

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Science Page: Salmonella antimicrobial resistance and emergence of a new serotype S.4,[5],12:i:-

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

Monitoring antimicrobial resistance is a research topic of utmost importance in the swine industry. Dr. Julio Alvarez at the University of Minnesota is leading some of this effort and this week, his team is presenting the latest results regarding Salmonella antimicrobial resistance in the strains isolated by the University of Minnesota – Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2006 and 2015 and the emergence of a new serotype S.4,[5],12:i:-

Key Points

  • Swine is the reservoir most commonly associated with the S.4,[5],12:i: serotype.
  • The prevalence of S. agona and S. 4,[5],12:i:- in isolates of swine origin recovered from clinical samples received at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) in 2006-2015 has increased.
  • In these serotypes an increased proportion of isolates were resistant to ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, compared with other serotypes.
  • The increase in the frequency of isolation of the S.4,[5],12:i:- serotype in humans may be paralleled by a similar increase in swine clinical samples received in the MVDL.

The information synthesized in the figure below is the evolution, over the years, of the percentages of Salmonella isolated at the UMN – VDL, belonging to each of other the following serotypes: typhimurium, agona, derby, typhymurium var5, and 4,5,12:i:-. The increase in the proportion of S.4,5,12:i:- can be seen starting back in 2011-2012.

Salmonella antibiotic resistance

Click here to read the full report about Salmonella serotypes isolated at the UMN – VDL

Science page: Are patterns of spatiotemporal clustering of PRRSv consistent across years?

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, we studied a subset of MSHMP participants located in the Midwest to test if some location/time combinations are more prominent during certain seasons across the years. Data from 358 farms in 10 management systems from 2011 to 2015 was compiled to look for clusters.

The clusters found by the SaTScanTM software are represented below. The red circles represent clusters identified in the time period from January to June, whereas blue ones are July to December. We can note that clusters were identified every year but that they varied with time.

Significant PRRS spatial cluster midwest
Significant spatial clusters for PRRSV in the Midwest between 2011 and 2015.

Key points

  • PRRS cases are recognized to be seasonal and aggregated by geographical space.
  • However, spatiotemporal patterns of PRRS clustering were not consistent across years.
  • Drivers of infection spread may vary over the years.

Future uses for this model can be found in the entire report

Science page: Evaluation of biosecurity measures to prevent indirect transmission of PEDV

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

The objective of the study presented today was to evaluate the efficacy of of biosecurity procedures directed at minimizing transmission via personnel following different protocols in controlled experimental settings.

Four (4) groups were housed in different rooms:

  • INF: Pigs infected with PEDV
  • LB: Naive pigs which were exposed to personnel coming from the INF room without changing PPE at all
  • MB: Naive pigs which were exposed to personnel coming from the INF room after washing their hands and face as well as changing footwear and clothing.
  • HB: Naive pigs which were exposed to personnel coming from the INF room after showering as well as changing clothing and footwear.

Results are shown in the figure below. Naive pigs were exposed to personnel from 44h after the pigs in the INF group were infected with PEDV until 10 days post infection.

PEDV indirect transmission biosecurity measures
Viral shedding of pigs. Movements were terminated at 10 dpi. Data presented are average values of viral RNA copies (± SD) of infected (INF), low biosecurity (LB), medium biosecurity (MB) and high biosecurity (HB) groups

Key points:

  • PEDV transmission is likely to occur with contaminated fomites in low biosecurity scenarios.
  • Indirect contact transmission of PEDV can happen very rapidly. Transmission was detected 24h after personnel moved from infected to low biosecurity rooms (no change in clothes, boots or washing hands)
  • Changing PPE (personal protective equipment) and washing skin exposed areas is beneficial to decrease the risk of PEDV transmission.

 

Link to the facilities diagram explaining the experiment setup as well as the results on PEDV indirect transmission in this study.

Science Page: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae detection in nylon flocked and rayon bud swabs

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

Sterile swabs are used to collect clinical samples from the pig’s respiratory tract. Research studies have shown that the sensitivity of respiratory pathogens detection can vary depending on the type of swab used for sample collection.

The objective of this study was to compare two types of commercial swabs for M. hyopneumoniae detection by real-time PCR.

nylon versus rayon swabs mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2017.gif
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae detection by real-time PCR. Results shown are Ct values.

Keypoints:

  • Absorption and detection of M. hyopneumoniae in nylon flocked swabs was significantly higher than rayon bud swabs.
  • Nylon flocked swabs could be suggested to use in chronic infections where the bacterial load could be low.

See the full report for more information on the absorption levels of the two different types of swabs.