Science Page: Prevalence comparison among different MSHMP cohorts

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, we are sharing a report from the MSHMP team regarding the differences in PRRS prevalence among various cohorts.

Key points:

  • Prevalence among cohorts does not differ.
  • Seasonal patterns can be seen in different cohorts located in different regions.

Prevalence PRRS status cohortA comparison from a prevalence standpoint between the cohort of farms belonging to the 13 systems participating at the start of the MSHMP (CS) and the cohort of farms from systems that joined the program later (CL), was performed with the objective of assessing whether the patterns between cohorts compare.

As seen in Figure 1–CS, there was a clear shift towards more use of MLV over LVI for sow herd stability purposes. The proportion of farms using LVI in the CS versus the CL is 5% and 10%, respectively. When assessing the proportion of farms in each AASV PRRS category (Holtkamp et al., 2011) both groups are comparable (Table 1). Also the temporal pattern of infection can be seen in both cohorts as described by Tousignant et al (2014).

In summary, both cohorts of farms (CS versus CL) yield similar results which continue to highlight the robustness of the program and the representativeness of the systems contributing to this program.

Science Page: Investigating the role of the environment and the lactating sow in PRRSV infections during an outbreak (Part 2)

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, we are sharing part 2 of the report on the role of the environment and the lactating sow in PRRSV outbreak. You may find part 1 of the report here.

Key Points:

  • PRRS virus can be detected in the environment of the farrowing house (surfaces and air) and on the udder skin of lactating sows. However, PRRSV detection in the environment decreases as time after an outbreak increases.
  • PRRSV was not detected in the environment after 4 months of an outbreak
  • Role of environmental PRRSV in the transmission of the disease is still unknown.

In this study, udder and surface wipes as well as particle deposition wipes were collected both at processing and at weaning, starting 2 weeks after the PRRSV outbreak.

PRRS sampling udder wipes surface wipes particle deposition

Results showed that PRRSV was detected at processing up to 14 weeks after the outbreak in surfaces and udder skin of lactating sows. At weaning, PRRSV was detected up to 17 weeks post-outbreak using udder skin wipes. The number of positive samples decreased over time and the Ct values of the positive samples increased over time indicating a decrease in infection load overtime. Detection of airborne particle deposition positive samples followed a similar pattern to those of the crate surfaces and udder wipes. Virus could be isolated and sequenced from all sample types.

Udder skin and environment may play a role in the transmission and maintenance of PRRSV in piglets in breeding herds; however further research is needed to validate this observation.

 

Swine Global Surveillance Project Issues First Reports

cahfs_primary_graphicThe University of Minnesota Swine Group and the Center for Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) have partnered with the Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) to develop and implement a system for near real time global surveillance of swine diseases. The output of the system is the identification of hazards that are subsequently scored using a step-wise procedure of screening, to identify increments in hazards that, potentially, may represent a risk for the US.

The first version of the system is now live, with the first three reports available, including data from November 5, 2017 to January 14, 2018.

Beginning in early March the tool will be available for spontaneous reporting by stakeholders, such as producers and practitioners both overseas and in the United States. During the first year of the project, the system will be developed and beta-tested for USDA-classified tier 1 reportable foreign animal swine diseases (ASF, CSF, FMD), but in the future more diseases will be tracked.

“As we have learned in recent years, we need to pay attention to external health threats as part of our overall risk management. Keeping tabs on global trends is a prudent investment,” said Dr. Jerry Torrison, Director of the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory.

From the most recent report, December 18, 2017 – January 14, 2018:

The current concern continues to focus on African swine fever in Poland and surrounding countries. Infected wild boars continue to be identified in the vicinity surrounding Warsaw, and the possibility of spread of the disease to the pig intensive area of eastern Poland continues to be a concern. Countries in the region are using a combination of increased hunting of wild boar along with boar proof fencing along borders to attempt to control the spread of the disease.

Visit z.umn.edu/SwineGlobalSurveillance to access the reports, and coming soon, to use the tool to provide spontaneous reporting.

AGREETT funding creates a renaissance in agricultural programs at the University of Minnesota

In 2015, the Minnesota State Legislature created the Agricultural Research, Education, Extension, and Technology Transfer program (AGREETT). Funding was established by the Department of Agriculture to support scientists and educators, increase the next generation of agricultural innovation and enhance Minnesota’s agricultural economy.

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In 2017, several AGREETT experts  were hired:

  • Matthew Aliota, Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences – Aliota is expected to arrive in February 2018 and will collaborate on interdisciplinary research connecting insect-borne disease to animal health.
  • Erin Cortus, Assistant Professor and Extension Engineer, Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering – Cortus’s research interests are the measurement and estimation of farm-level gas emissions and the related impacts on animals, workers and surrounding community.
  • Diane DeWitte, Extension Educator – Swine. DeWitte provides quality assurance certifications and biosecurity education to swine producers and youth exhibitors, collaborates on swine barn environmental research, and assists with research conducted at the University’s swine farms at Waseca and Morris.
  • Andres Gomez, Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science – Gomez is engaged in studying the factors that shape the composition and function of the microbiome associated to animals and humans.
  • Jared Goplen, Extension Educator – Crops. Goplen focuses primarily in the areas of forage and small grain production and is based at the Morris Regional Extension Office.
  • Joleen Hadrich, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, Department of Applied Economics – Hadrich’s research focuses on agricultural finance and production economics with an emphasis on farm-level profitability.
  • Annalisa Hultberg, Extension Educator, Food Safety – Hultberg’s focus is on-farm food safety education, outreach and research related to Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs), with fruit and vegetable producers.
  • Yuxin Miao, Associate Professor, Department of Soil, Water and Climate – Miao’s research focuses on precision nitrogen management, especially using proximal, UAV-and satellite-based remote sensing technologies to improve crop nitrogen management in different scales of farming systems, and developing integrated precision crop management systems for high crop yield and resource use efficiencies and protection of the environment.
  • Noelle Noyes, Assistant Professor and Extension Educator, Department of Veterinary, Population Medicine – Noyes arrives in May 2018 and will develop practical and effective models for improving preharvest food safety from production through processing by strengthening partnerships between industry, government and the University.
  • Kim VanderWaal, Assistant Professor and Extension Educator, Department of Veterinary Population Medicine – VanderWaal uses large data sets to better understand antibiotic resistance, food safety and pathogen movements within large agricultural production systems.
  • Megan Webb, Assistant Professor and Extension Educator, Department of Animal Science – Webb will develop collaborative research and Extension programs focused on sustaining productivity growth in the beef industry and engaging with producers and industry to grow this vital part of Minnesota’s economy.
  • Melissa Wilson, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate – Wilson’s research and Extension programs are in manure management and water quality.

In addition to the personnel described above, AGREETT invested $4.2 million in upgrades and improvements in infrastructure to support our research.

  • University of Minnesota Soil Testing Lab
  • Image Technology for Rapid Detection of Crop Pests and Diseases
  • Forest Research Capacity – Cloquet, Minn.
  • Animal Health and Food Safety Analysis Equipment: “Food Centric Corridor
  • Rapid Agricultural Response Project
  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Research

Read more

Controlling Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in the field

Controlling Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in the field can be challenging. After summarizing the best sample types and diagnostic methods to detect mycoplasma infections early, Dr. Maria Pieters wrote an article for pig333 recapitulating the existing options for a producer struggling with enzootic pneumonia on her farm.

No single strategy will confer total protection. A well-orchestrated combination of various methods adjusted to a single production unit or system will be needed.

Indeed, Dr. Pieters reminds us that 3 different approaches can be combined to achieve greater disease control:

overall-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-control-is-effectively-achieved-when-combining-various-strategies_126971.jpgNo single strategy will confer total protection from infection with M. hyopneumoniae or disease elimination. However, a well-orchestrated combination of various methods, not only directed at clinical signs, but to the root of disease spread and transmission, adjusted to the unique characteristics of a production unit or system, is necessary to reach the goal of controlling M. hyopneumoniae infections and improving overall swine production around the world.

The entire article on Controlling Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in the field is available on the pig333 website.

NHF: Coping with shortage of vitamins A and E in swine diets

This month, the swine nutritionist team at the University of Minnesota share in the National Hog Farmer, how to cope with the shortage of vitamins A and E in swine diets.

Usually, vitamins A and E are added to swine diets at up to 4 times the recommendation made by the National Research council. This is due in part to the variability of requirements in swine. However, a system-wide approach could help the industry to cope with the increase in price and the limited supply.

A wide range of alternatives are proposed to make up for the shortage:

  • Rely on body reserves
  • Add ingredients with high levels of vitamins
  • Remove vitamins A and E from finishing diets 35 days before harvest (it has no effect on their performances)
  • Minimize storage time to avoid degradation
  • Avoid low-quality oils to increase vitamin E absorption by the liver
  • Polyphenols and carotinoids can be used as alternatives
  • Strategically use injectable form

In addition to those strategies, farm personnel needs to be vigilant and look for signs of deficiency like impaired reproductive performances and Mulberry Heart Disease.

Alternatives to vitamin A and E in swine diets.jpg

Science Page: Foreign animal disease and Secure Pork Supply: the importance of a Premises Identification Number

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, the MSHMP team in collaboration with Dr. Marie Culhane shares why having a Premises Identification Number (PIN) is important in the context of Secure Pork Supply.

Key Points:

  • In the event of a Foreign Animal Disease outbreak it is required for all swine premises to have a Premises Identification Number
  • Having correct location data associated with PINs is imperative for responding to an FAD at a farm or large scale level
  • Validating and correcting information associated with PINs is an important step in FAD preparedness

What is a PIN?

A federal swine Premises Identification Number (PIN) is a unique, seven character ID, allocated to a premises where swine are produced, kept or moved through.The PIN is a key component in identifying and tracking swine as they move through the United States.The USDA APHIS PIN allocator generates a PIN once a premise has been registered through a state’s animal health official.

What is it used for?

PINs are essential for continuity of business (COB) during a Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) event.Any premises wishing to move pigs during an FAD event must have a PIN.

Unfortunately, there are two common problems in the industry, creating poor PIN information:

  • incorrect address linked to a site
  • two  geographically distinct sites sharing the same PIN

It is important to find and correct these or other issues that are identified for an existing
PIN. An easy way to identify issues is to validate the locations associated with aPIN using a mapping site such as Google Maps to check the accuracy of the address and coordinates.

To correct these errors it will be necessary to apply for a new PIN via the state’s animal health official.