The first week-end in December is usually the time of the North American PRRS symposium. This year did not upset the tradition but this time, the conference was in collaboration with the National Swine Improvement Federation.
The meeting was dedicated to our friend and colleague Dr. Bob Morrison. A memorial fellowship organized by Dr. Montse Torremorell (U of MN) and Dr. Joan Lunney (USDA) provided travel support to future scientists who wish to follow in his footsteps.
Stephen Gerike from the Pork Checkoff shared information on the state of pork products used in restaurant. Bacon represents 20% of products used but is still growing (+4% since last year).
Stephen Gerike shared the updated cooking recommendations for pork product.
Overall, 82% of restaurant customers eat the same or larger amount of pork which is a good trend for the industry. Mr. Gerike also shared the efforts done by Pork Checkoff to convince consumers to not overcook their pork. Reminder: 145F is safe. “Cook your pork like you cook your steak!”
The University of Minnesota was well represented during the conference. Dr. Montse Torremorell moderated the Saturday morning session on PRRS in the field. Drs. Cesar Corzo, Carles Vilalta and Juan Sanhueza shared the updates on the Morrison Swine Health Monitoring Program as well as regarding the studies that they are involved with. Take away messages:
MSHMP is now collecting information from 50% of the sows in the United States.
Based on this data, 58% of the farms breaking with PRRSV today will break again within a year.
PRRS summer outbreaks happen and vary based on location (see figure below).
Farms take a longer time to reach stability after a summer outbreak (median 41.5 weeks)
Processing fluids can be used as a monitoring method for PRRS.
The recipients of the Pijoan and Leman fellowships were revealed last week and we are proud to announce that two great candidates were selected.
Dr. Eliana Silva Paladino is receiving the Carlos Pijoan fellowship. Eliana obtained her DVM and MS degrees in Brazil and is currently a PhD student advised by Dr. Julio Alvarez. Eliana’s PhD is focusing on the application of quantitative tools for the management of problems of relevance to the swine industry at both the farm and population (i.e., supra-farm) levels. She is currently focusing on developing systems to quantify the effect of endemic diseases such as swine influenza and the management strategies adopted for their control in affected farms. She is also working on the assessment of trends in submissions received at veterinary diagnostic laboratories over time to evaluate the impact of changes in disease distribution, diagnostic approaches and farm management in the U.S.
Dr. Jose Angulo is receiving the Allen Leman fellowship. Jose obtained his DVM degree in Mexico and is currently a PRRS specialist and managing veterinarian for Zoetis in charge of U.S. customers. Jose will be completing his Masters in Dr. Montse Torremorell’s lab and his work will focus on understanding PRRS infections in growing pigs and how to prevent them.
Title: Epidemiological investigation of a non-reportable endemic disease: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in the US
Presented by: Pablo Valdes-Donoso
Date:Friday, June 9, 2017 Time: 3:00 – 4:00 pm Place: 385-J, AS/VM Building
Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by a highly mutagenic and resistant RNA-virus, is an endemic disease that has been noted as one of the most important animal production diseases in the US because of its large economic damage on the swine industry. Nonetheless, there is no official control framework for this disease, so producers rely on voluntary regional control programs (RCPs) for its mitigation. Despite efforts to control PRRS, it persists in the environment, affecting a large number of farms every year. Using information shared by a specific RCP (RCP-N212), this dissertation focused on important aspects of PRRS dynamics within an RCP. Specifically, this dissertation encompassed five chapters. An introductory chapter is followed by the second chapter, which quantifies the extent to which RCPs contribute to PRRS control. After that, a prediction of network structure was made to forecast animal movements among farms within the RCP-N212. Then, longitudinal data collected from sow farms were used to measure the impacts of PRRS on production. Finally, a disaggregated disease diffusion model was used to depict PRRS dynamics within the RCP-N212, as well as to evaluate individual and collective strategies adopted by producers. This dissertation provides insight to the evaluation of regional control strategies that may be used as a framework for a formal PRRS control program.
The UMN CVM students did a fantastic job at the 2017 American Association of Swine Veterinarians (AASV) meeting this past weekend. Four students presented their projects as an oral presentation. Zhen Yang, Alyssa Anderson, Hunter Baldry and Chris Deegan were all recognized by a jury for their hard work and commitment to the swine industry.
Taylor Homann, Donna Drebes, and Kevin Gustafson all got the opportunity to present their work as poster presentations.
Lastly, two out of the three awards given by Boehringer Ingelheim to advance the research on swine respiratory pathogens were given to Dr. Marie Culhane and Dr. Carlos Vilalta for their project on swine influenza and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) respectively.
The swine group was well represented at the 2017 MVMA meeting. Ms. Alyssa Anderson and Dr. Karine Ludwig Takeuti both gave a presentation on diagnostic tools to detect Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections. Drs. Jorge Garrido Mantilla and Fabian Chamba Pardo shared the latest update on swine influenza. Dr. Amy Kinsley explained how the structure of a swine farm can influence disease persistence. Dr. Talita Resende shared the advantages of a fairly recent diagnostic technique: in situ hybridization. Congratulations to Ms. Alyssa Anderson who also received a $5,000 Food Animal Scholarship from the MVM Foundation!
Next week-end will start the 48th American Association of Swine Veterinarians (AASV) meeting in Denver, CO. As usual, numerous UMN-CVM faculty and graduate students will be attending and presenting the results of their latest research. We hare looking forward to seeing you there!
Doug Marthaler: Porcine rotaviruses: what we know and what we are still missing
Maria Pieters: Current tools to approach Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae diagnostic cases
Michael Murtaugh: Broadly neutralizing antibodies to recent, virulent type 2 PRRSV isolates
Michael Rahe: Characterization of the memory immune response to PRRSV infection
Fabian Chamba Pardo: Effect of influenza prevalence at weaning on transmission, clinical signs and performance after weaning
Talita Resende: Mycoplasma hyorhinis associated with conjunctivitis in pigs
Peter Davies: Antibiotic use metrics
Managing the reproductive herd for high health and productivity
Maria Pieters: A pig’s early challenges
Alyssa Anderson: Use of molecular characterization tools to investigate Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae outbreaks
Hunter Baldry: Evaluation of positive pressure filtration to reduce aerosol transmission of PRRSV during an experimental challenge of farm access points
Chris Deegan: Dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization, seroconversion and onset of clinical signs in a population of gilts under field conditions
Zhen Yang: Investigating Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) in commercial swine herd by next generation sequencing
Fabian Chamba Pardo: Influenza A virus prevalence and seasonality in midwestern US breeding herds
Donna Drebes: Trends in Lawsonia intracellularis PCR to the submissions to the UMN-VDL over a 10-year period
Kevin Gustafson: B-cell tetramer monitoring of the memory immune response to PRRSV
Taylor Homann: Characterizing piglet loss from PRRS outbreak
Dr. Fernando Leite, a PhD student under the supervision of Dr. Richard Isaacson, won the Lynn Jones Memorial Award for the best oral presentation at the 97th Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD). His talk entitled “Lawsonia intracellularis vaccination decreases Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium shedding in co-infected pigs” presented the results of the work he did in collaboration with Drs. Gebhart, Singer, and Isaacson at the University of Minnesota.
Please join us in congratulating Fernando for his award!
Abstract: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Lawsonia intracellularis are two of the most prevalent intestinal pathogens of swine. S. Typhimurium causes diarrhea but also results in subclinical persistent colonization of pigs and can lead to food borne illnesses. S. enterica is responsible for over 1 million cases of food borne illness per year in the United States. L. intracellularis infection has been found as a risk factor for increased S. Typhimurium shedding in swine. The objective of this study was to investigate if vaccination against L. intracellularis could lead to decreased S. Typhimurium shedding. To test this hypothesis, groups of nine pigs were either challenged with S. Typhimurium, S. Typhimurium and L. intracellularis, S. Typhimurium and vaccinated against L. intracellularis, or S. Typhimurium L. intracellularis and vaccinated against L. intracellularis. A non-infected control group served as a negative control. Fecal shedding of S. Typhimurium was monitored using an enrichment most probable number method two days after infection and weekly thereafter until animals reached the age of 14 weeks. The co-challenged vaccinated group had a tendency of shedding the least S. Typhimurium and at one-week post infection is when the greatest differences among groups was observed and the vaccinated co-challenged group shed significantly less Salmonella (p>0.05) than the group co-infected without vaccination and the group challenged with Salmonella alone. These differences were of 1.63 and 2.12 Log10 organisms per gram of feces, respectively. The instestinal microbiome of these animals is being investigated to understand how it may have impacted Salmonella shedding levels in the different treatments. These results indicate that vaccination against L. intracellularis may aid in the control of S. Typhimurium in herds co-infected with L. intracellularis.