Science Page: Salmonella antimicrobial resistance and emergence of a new serotype S.4,[5],12:i:-

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

Monitoring antimicrobial resistance is a research topic of utmost importance in the swine industry. Dr. Julio Alvarez at the University of Minnesota is leading some of this effort and this week, his team is presenting the latest results regarding Salmonella antimicrobial resistance in the strains isolated by the University of Minnesota – Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2006 and 2015 and the emergence of a new serotype S.4,[5],12:i:-

Key Points

  • Swine is the reservoir most commonly associated with the S.4,[5],12:i: serotype.
  • The prevalence of S. agona and S. 4,[5],12:i:- in isolates of swine origin recovered from clinical samples received at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) in 2006-2015 has increased.
  • In these serotypes an increased proportion of isolates were resistant to ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, compared with other serotypes.
  • The increase in the frequency of isolation of the S.4,[5],12:i:- serotype in humans may be paralleled by a similar increase in swine clinical samples received in the MVDL.

The information synthesized in the figure below is the evolution, over the years, of the percentages of Salmonella isolated at the UMN – VDL, belonging to each of other the following serotypes: typhimurium, agona, derby, typhymurium var5, and 4,5,12:i:-. The increase in the proportion of S.4,5,12:i:- can be seen starting back in 2011-2012.

Salmonella antibiotic resistance

Click here to read the full report about Salmonella serotypes isolated at the UMN – VDL

Longitudinal study of Senecavirus shedding and viremia in sows and piglets

How long do sows and piglets shed Senecavirus A after a clinical outbreak? How long is the viremia? Those are the questions answered in this case study of a Senecavirus A outbreak in one US farm.

Objective and Methods

Senecavirus A is a challenge for producers and veterinarians because of its clinical similarity to Food and Mouth Disease (FMD). In this study, 34 sows and 30 individual piglets from 15 different litters were sampled at day 1 post-outbreak and later at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 weeks post-outbreak (PO). Serum, and tonsil, rectal, and vesicular swabs were collected for all of the pigs included in the study. The objective of the study was to explore the viremia and shedding patterns in those infected animals. All samples were submitted to the University of Minnesota, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory to be tested by PCR.

longitudinal study of senecavirus figures Tousignant 2017.gif
Percentage of serum (a), tonsil swabs (b), and rectal swabs (c) positive for Senecavirus A. Clinical outbreak happened in sow farm 1 (S1) and piglets from sow farm 2 (S2) were mixed with piglets from S1 at weaning.

 

Results

Vesicular lesions were seen in sows only for 2 weeks and had the highest amount of virus. In sows, the detection of Senecavirus A in tonsil and rectal swabs was greater than 90% at 0 week PO and remained as high as 50% through 5 weeks PO. Generally, viremia was detected up to 1 week PO in sows but it is important to note that viremia was not detected in 11 out of 34 (32%) of the sows at any point during the study. Viremia was detected in 18 out of 30 (60%) and 19 out of 30 (63%) in the suckling piglets from site 1. Similar to sows, viremia was not detected in 9 out of 30 (30%) of the site 1 piglets enrolled in the study.

The detection of Senecavirus A in sows tonsil swabs peaked 1 week PO (94% positive) whereas it peaked at day 1 PO for piglets (83% positive). The detection of virus shedding decreased over time in sows and piglets, and a single sow and piglet tested positive at 9 weeks PO.

The peak of Senecavirus A detection from rectal swabs in sows (91%) occurred at day 1 PO and continued to steadily decrease and was not detected at 9 weeks PO. In site 1 piglets, the detection of SVA peaked at 1 week PO (90% positive). 64% of the rectal swabs were positive at 4 weeks PO in site 1 piglets. At 6 weeks PO, the detection of Senecavirus A was same for both site 1 and 2 piglets (11%); however, a single piglet from site 1 was still shedding SVA at 9 weeks PO.

Discussion

The study assessed the shedding pattern of SVA in sows and piglets during an outbreak on a farm in the US and investigated the spread of SVA between pigs during the post weaning period. Vesicular lesions were seen in sows only for 2 weeks and had the highest amount of virus. In sows, the detection of SVA in tonsil and rectal swabs was greater than 90% at 0 week PO and remained as high as 50% through 5 weeks PO, these sample types should be collected and submitted, in addition to vesicular lesion swabs and fluid (if present), as part of FAD investigations for the detection of SVA.

 

Click on the banner below to access the full article.

longitudinal study of senecavirus Tousignant 2017

Abstract

Background: The study highlights the shedding pattern of Senecavirus A (SVA) during an outbreak of vesicular disease in a sow farm from the South-central Minnesota, USA. In this study, 34 individual, mixed parity sows with clinical signs of vesicular lesions and 30 individual piglets from 15 individual litters from sows with vesicular lesions were conveniently selected for individual, longitudinal sampling. Serum, tonsil, rectal, and vesicular swabs were collected on day 1 post outbreak, and then again at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 weeks post outbreak. Samples were tested at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for SVA via Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)
Results: In sows, vesicular lesions had the highest concentration of SVA, but had the shortest duration of detection lasting only 2 weeks. Viremia was detected for 1 week post outbreak, and quickly declined thereafter. SVA was detected at approximately the same frequency for both tonsil and rectal swabs with the highest percentage of SVA positive samples detected in the first 6 weeks post outbreak. In suckling piglets, viremia quickly declined 1 week post outbreak and was prevalent in low levels during the first week after weaning (4 weeks post outbreak) and was also detected in piglets that were co-mingled from a SVA negative sow farm. Similar to sows, SVA detection on rectal and tonsil swabs in piglets lasted approximately 6 weeks post outbreak.
Conclusion: The study illustrates the variation of SVA shedding patterns in different sample types over a 9 week period in sows and piglets, and suggests the potential for viral spread between piglets at weaning.

Science Page: Introducing Secure Pork Supply

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, we are talking about Secure Pork Supply (SPS).

The goal of SPS is to develop procedures that pork producers, processors, and Federal and State agencies all agree are feasible to allow for the safe movement of animals from farms in an FAD Control Area to harvest channels or other production sites as long as they have no evidence of disease.

Secure Pork Supply

 Key points

  • In the event of a foreign animal disease (FAD) outbreak in the U.S., maintaining business continuity for the pork industry is critical for food security and animal health and well-being.
  • The goal of the Secure Pork Supply (SPS) Plan is to provide a workable business continuity plan.
  • Having the SPS Plan in place prior to a FAD outbreak will enhance coordination and communication between all parties and speed up a successful FAD response.

Click here to see the full report

The 2017 Allen D. Leman swine conference celebrated Bob Morrison’s legacy

The 2017 edition of the Allen D. Leman swine conference held in St. Paul, MN will be remembered as a special one : a tribute to our dear friend and colleague Dr. Bob Morrison whose untimely passing earlier this year stunned the swine world.

Bob was a dedicated advocate for the swine industry, passionate about doing relevant work that will help producers. Man of the utmost integrity, he was a leading force in our world, striving to get better every single day. Bob was also the coordinator of the Allen D. Leman swine conference for many years and even if he was not seen walking down the hallways of the St. Paul RiverCentre, his presence was heavily felt throughout the four days of the conference. Around 1,000 participants gathered from all around the world to attend this annual event designed to provide science-driven solutions to problems encountered on swine farms.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

At the opening of the conference, both Dr. Trevor Ames, Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Minnesota and Dr. Gordon Spronk, lifelong friend of Bob,  honored Bob’s memory and urged the swine industry to continue his legacy.

On Monday, Gary Louis and Dr. Luc Dufresne from Seaboard Foods gave a keynote lecture on their perspective of what it means to pursue initiatives for the greater good as an integrator whereas Dr. Bob Thompson received the Leman Science in Practice award and shared his experience and advice with young practitioners during the Breakfast Conversations. A lot of high quality research posters were displayed during the reception sponsored by Tonisity and some of our graduate students were among the six selected as best poster presentations.

The new DVM student session showed us that the next generation of veterinarians is curious, passionate about the swine industry and eager to solve its challenges. We will continue this session and enhance it with the creation of the Morrison Swine Innovator Prize which was unveiled during the Science in Practice reception sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim.

On Tuesday, the keynote session was centered around coopetition, or the act of cooperating with your competitors as Rebecca Liu from Lancaster University explained. Dr. Noel Williams from Iowa Select Farms and Dr. Joel Nerem from Pipestome Systems both gave their perspective on how coopetition works in the swine world. One of the example mentioned was the Morrsion Swine Health Monitoring Program (MSHMP), a project Bob was passionate about, which allows producers to share information such as disease status and work together towards better swine health for all participants.

Most importantly, we would like to thank all of you for your continuing support. The Allen D. Leman swine conference would not exist without you and we hope to see you next year: September 15-18, 2018.

Science Page: Leman swine conference – A tribute to Dr. Bob Morrison

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

cfs_lemanswine_web_hdr_1200x200

The Allen D. Leman swine conference starts tomorrow!
This year’s Leman Conference will be a Tribute to Bob and what he did during his career and his continuation of the goals upon which Al Leman first founded the conference.
His drive for holistic improvement rather than individual aggrandizement can be seen reflected in session titles like, “Lesson’s From Dr. Morrison: Focus on Work that Matters”, and “Bob Morrison’s Legacy: Applying a Collaborative Approach in a Competitive Industry”.

Bob pushed himself and those around him to do “work that matters”, display integrity, and focus on the industry as a whole. The Leman Conference is an actualization of these values.

Read the entire tribute here.

How much floor space does a pregnant sow need in a group-housing system with electronic sow feeders?

floor-allowance-gestating-sows
Sows housed in groups at the UMN facility in Morris

The University of Minnesota – Morris owns a swine research facility which provides an excellent set up to study the behavior of sows housed in groups. In the past few years, swine producers have committed to change the conditions in which the sows are housed in farms and to keep them in groups where they can interact with each other instead of housing them individually. Putting sows in group reminded us that pigs need a hierarchy and that they will compete and fight to establish it. Because space allowance can impact sows behavior we wondered what the optimum floor space is.

Read the entire report on floor space allowance for sows by Dr. Yuzhi Li

Determining floor space allowance for gestating sows can be controversial because more floor space allowance means low output per square footage of the barn and will potentially reduce profitability for producers. On the other hand, floor space allowance less than sow requirement can compromise sow welfare and performance. To answer the question in the title of this article, we conducted a two-year project (titled ‘Determining the Minimal Floor Space Allowance for Gestating Sows Kept in Pens with Electronic Sow Feeders’). The project was partially sponsored by the National Pork Board, and the research team includes Yuzhi Li and Lee Johnston from the WCROC in Morris, and Sam Baidoo from the SCROC (Southern Research and Outreach Center) in Waseca.[…]

 

The 2017 Allen D. Leman swine conference starts in a week!

Are you ready for the 2017 Leman conference? Come see us starting September 16th at the Saint Paul RiverCentre.

Why come to the Leman conference?

  • For the scientific program built around science-driven solutions, with international speakers
  • For the networking opportunities with hundreds of participants from the swine industry
  • Continuing Education credits available for veterinarians
  • Flu vaccination clinic sponsored by Newport Laboratories

cfs_lemanswine_web_hdr_1200x200

Who should attend the Allen D. Leman swine conference?

Swine veterinarians and other professionals working in swine production and animal health management are welcome to attend.

This year in the program:

  • Dr. Bob Thompson to receive the Science in Practice award sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim
  • Honoring Dr. Bob Morrison’s legacy: Monday September 18th, 8am and 6pm
  • New DVM student session centered around problem-solving skills: Sunday 17th
  • Keynote presentations:
    • Gary Louis and Luc Dufresne from Seaboard Foods, Challenges in defining the Greater Good
    • Noel Williams: Why does the pork industry needs coopetition?
    • Rebecca Liu: Cooperation, Competition and coopetition
    • Tim Roufs: Nutrition and Eating: Understanding why and how we eat

We are looking forward to seeing you next week but if you cannot make it, make sure to come see us next year: Sept 15-18, 2018!