Microbiome studies in swine systems: Challenges and opportunities (Part 1)

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, we are sharing part 1 of a report on the microbiome in swine production, by Dr. Andres Gomez.

Key Points

  • Microbiome and more specifically the bacteria residing in the gut play multiple roles related with nutrition and health.
  • The study of swine gut bacteria is still in its early stages, and the field contains many possibilities exciting possibilities.
  • Funding and microbiome classification are two of the most important barriers to overcome in order to gain insight into the complex field of swine gut bacteria.
Continue reading “Microbiome studies in swine systems: Challenges and opportunities (Part 1)”

Understanding PRRSV Infection Dynamics in Growing Pigs in Control and Elimination Programs

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week we are sharing a report by Dr. Jose Angulo regarding PRRS infection dynamics in growing pigs.

Key Points

  • Growing pigs play an important role in regional PRRSV spread.
  • There was an association between prevalence of PRRSV infection in growing pig sites and risk of outbreaks in sow farms.
  • Learning about PRRSV infection dynamics in growing pigs and associated risk factors should help manage pig flows to minimize PRRSV incidence and /or risk of dissemination.
Continue reading “Understanding PRRSV Infection Dynamics in Growing Pigs in Control and Elimination Programs”

Assessing internal personnel movements in swine farms to help direct PRRS control and elimination efforts

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, we are sharing the preliminary results of a study conducted by Dr. Andreia Arruda at Ohio State University.

Key points

  • Newly developed beacon-sensing technology can be used to better understand within-farm people movement; and particularly better quantify potentially “risky” movements in PRRS positive herds during control/ elimination efforts.
  • Preliminary data analysis showed that an increase in commonly referred to “risky” movements (e.g. from loading areas/ nurseries to other parts of the farm) was associated with a decrease in number of pigs weaned per sow; and an increase in pre-weaning mortality.
Continue reading “Assessing internal personnel movements in swine farms to help direct PRRS control and elimination efforts”

Morrison Swine Health Monitoring Project 2018 Summary

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, Dr Cesar Corzo shares the summary of the year 2018 for the Morrison Swine Health Monitoring Project.

During 2018 the MSHMP continued to make progress in different areas related to our main objective of developing the capacity to support the industry respond to emerging pathogens.

1) Database – Database has been structured to be able to capture a larger volume of data. This is a major step forward as we continue to work towards building the capacity of adding more sites and disease entities if needed.

2) Prospective PRRS sequence monitoring – The process of capturing diagnostic data continues, although not yet automated it is still adding sequences to the database. The database currently has 23,414 PRRS sequences from 20 systems and 21 states. Analyses of the database have begun with a subset but ultimately, we will be exploring trends and seasonal relationships involving spatialͲtemporal approaches. The database continues to provide a resource for MSHMP participants when conducting outbreak investigations.

3) Transport data capture and analysis – After a challenging year with our transport App we have decided to go back to basics and try a new approach to capturing transport data. The new approach which involves technology already validated in the trucking industry is currently being tested; we will follow up on this objective later this year.

4) Expansion – MSHMP continues to grow through three different ways:

  • 1) Current MSHMP participants continue to add new established farms,
  • 2) New participants have joined the project, two new production systems are already reporting and 2 more are in the process of providing data and
  • 3) Growing herd data inclusion into MSHMP has begun and is in the early stages as we learn how to link it with the breeding herd.

We have also continued our commitment with creating value to our producers through specific research projects that have been shared through conferences, MSHMP participant meeting during AASV and Leman Conference.

Peer Reviewed Publications

1. Vilalta C, Sanhueza J, Alvarez J, Murray D, Torremorell M, Corzo C, Morrison R. Use of processing fluids to determine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection status in pig litters. Vet Microbiol. 2018. 225:149Ͳ156. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.09.006

2. Machado, G., C. Vilalta, A.M. Corzo, C., Torremorrell, M., Perez, K. VanderWaal. Predicting outbreaks of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus through animal movements and spatial neighborhoods. Nature Scientific Reports. Accepted.

3. Kinsley, A.C., A. Perez, M.E. Craft, K. VanderWaal. Characterization of swine movements in the United States and implications for disease control. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Submitted.

4. Sanhueza JM, Vilalta C, Corzo C, Arruda AG. Factors affecting Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus time-to-stability in breeding herds in the Midwestern United States. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018. Dec 6. Doi: 10.11111/tbed.13091.

5. Arruda AG, Sanhueza J, Corzo C, Vilalta C. Assessment of area spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in three clusters of swine farms. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12875.

6. Arruda AG, Vilalta C, Puig P, Perez A, Alba A. Time-series analysis for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in the United States. PLoS One. 2018. 13(4):e0195282. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195282. eCollection.

7. VanderWaal, K, Perez A, Torremorrell A, Morrison R, Craft M. Role of animal movement and indirect contact among farms in transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Epidemics. 2018. 24:67-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.epidemic.2018.04.001.

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the strong team of faculty members, post-docs, students and staff that make this project possible. Additionally, this project would not be possible without the commitment of participants and practitioners and funding from the Swine Health Information Center.

Faculty: B. Morrison, C. Corzo, A. Perez, M. Torremorell, K. VanderWaal, J. Torrison and D. Linhares (ISU), D. Holtkamp (ISU), A. Arruda (OSU), and G. Machado (NCSU)

Post-Docs and Students: Carles Vilalta (Data visualization, PRRS testing), Juan Sanhueza (TTS, spatialͲtemporal analysis), Mariana Kikuti (PRRS sequence trends), Paulo Fioravante (IT Director), Emily Geary (Data manager), Kaushi Kanankege (Spatial analysis), Igor Paploski (Regional PRRS sequence analysis), Belinda Befort (Diagnostic trends)

Project Invitation: Assessing within-herd PRRS variability and its impact on production parameters

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week, Dr. Arruda and her numerous collaborators invite you to participate in a project.

We know that PRRS virus mutates and evolves quickly. We know there can be co-circulation of PRRS variants in a herd, and even within a single animal. We don’t know whether that can impact health and production. We don’t know how that affects the way we are currently sampling and assessing virus similarity within herds over time.

Project main goal:

This project aims to examine within-herd PRRSV variability over time for sow and growing pig sites under different PRRS immunity strategies (vaccinated, negative and positive herds), and investigate the association between within-herd PRRS variability and health and production parameters of interest to swine producers. We partnered up collaborators with a wide range of expertise to use whole genome sequencing (WGS) to provide insights on the likelihood of PRRS outbreaks

Objective 1:

Describe PRRSV quasispecies within farms using a sample of farms of different demographic types and PRRS management strategies over a one-year time span; and investigate whether PRRSV variability has an impact on health and production outcomes.

Objective 2:

Investigate and compare the use of WGS and different ORFs to determine the best predictor to identify and relate viruses within swine herds.

Objective 3:

Correlate PRRSV variants with production and disease metrics being due to “normal” within-herd virus evolution, vs. new PRRS introductions. And we will also look into the effect of PRRSv variants in production

Request:

We are looking to enroll 6 farms for this project, that has a duration of 1 year:

3 breeding herds (farrow-wean):

  • 1 “naïve” herd (no PRRS for at least last 2 years) that just had an outbreak (farm will be enrolled as a new outbreak happens)
  • 1 “vaccinated” herd (a herd that had a PRRS outbreak and has been vaccinated since then at least twice a year with a MLV)
  • 1 “naturally exposed” herd (a herd that had an outbreak in the past year but is no longer exposing or vaccinating animals (herd will be still eligible if gilts are exposed off site and brought in after testing negative)

3 growing pig herds (finisher or wean-finish):

  • 1 “naïve” herd (no PRRS for at least last 2 years) that just had an outbreak (farm will be enrolled as a new outbreak happens)
  • 1 “vaccinated” herd (a herd that vaccinates each batch of animals using a MLV)
  • 1 “positive” herd (a herd that had an outbreak in the past and is regularly exposed to live virus or a herd that is receiving known positive pigs from a positive source.

We would work with your veterinarian and your team to coordinate the submission of ~16 samples total in a monthly basis for 1 year (12 samplings). These samples will include a combination of processing fluids, oral fluids, and tonsil scrapings. All samples will be sent to the University of Minnesota monthly. Diagnostics is paid. Also, sharing production data will be a requirement.