How investigating the piglet helps us advance influenza control

Before we start with today’s post, we would like to wish you all the best for this new year. Thank you for your support and for reading us year after year.
So here is to a new decade, always bringing you science-driven solutions!

Weaning-age piglets are responsible for the spread of many diseases, but in the case of influenza, they are also responsible for circulating the virus within the herd. 

Continue reading “How investigating the piglet helps us advance influenza control”

Effect of Single Dose of Antimicrobial Administration at Birth on Fecal Microbiota Development and Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Piglets

It is the end of the year and to celebrate, here is one of the favorite Science Pages of the year, from Dr. Lowe’s team at the University of Illinois.

Keypoints

  • Early life antimicrobial prophylaxis had no effect on individual weight gain, or mortality but it was associated with minor shifts in the composition of fecal microbiota and noticeable changes in the abundance of selected Antimicrobial Resistant Genes
  • The shifts in fecal microbiota structure caused by perinatal antimicrobial intervention are modest and limited to particular groups of microbial taxa
  • Early life PPG and TUL intervention could promote the selection of Anrimicrobial Resistant Genes in herds
Continue reading “Effect of Single Dose of Antimicrobial Administration at Birth on Fecal Microbiota Development and Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Piglets”

Effect of Single Dose of Antimicrobial Administration at Birth on Fecal Microbiota Development and Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Piglets

This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.

This week’s Science Page presents the results of a project done by Zeineldin et al. from Dr. Jim Lowe’s program at the University of Illinois.

Keypoints

  • Early life antimicrobial prophylaxis had no effect on individual weight gain, or mortality but it was associated with minor shifts in the composition of fecal microbiota and noticeable changes in the abundance of selected Antimicrobial Resistant Genes
  • The shifts in fecal microbiota structure caused by perinatal antimicrobial intervention are modest and limited to particular groups of microbial taxa
  • Early life PPG and TUL intervention could promote the selection of Anrimicrobial Resistant Genes in herds
Continue reading “Effect of Single Dose of Antimicrobial Administration at Birth on Fecal Microbiota Development and Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Piglets”

Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae dual detection patterns in dams and piglets

Today, we are sharing an original research article published by the MycoLab and Dr. Maria Pieters in PLOS One regarding detection patterns for 2 species of mycoplasmas in sows and piglets.

The objectives of this study were to:

  • describe when Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae can be detected in piglets and is sows,
  • assess if there was a correlation between detection of the mycoplasmas in the sow and in the piglet, and
  • assess if there was a correlation between lameness and mycoplasma detection.

Conclusions

Under the conditions of this investigation, dams appeared to be consistently positive for both M. hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae prior to weaning.

In contrast, higher detection was observed in piglets at week 3, in comparison to week 1 post-farrowing, with M. hyorhinis, while detection of M. hyosynoviae was remarkably minimal.

The relative risk of developing lameness in postweaning piglets was highly associated with the detection of M. hyorhinis at 3 weeks of age

This research article is available in open-access on the PlOS One website.

Continue reading “Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae dual detection patterns in dams and piglets”

Breed-to-wean farm factors associated with influenza A virus infection in piglets at weaning

A scientific article written by Dr. Fabian Chamba Pardo when he was doing his PhD in the Torremorell lab was recently published on the journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine. The study presented aimed to look at the various factors influencing the influenza infection status of piglets at weaning.

Highlights

  • Sow vaccination decreased influenza infections in piglets at weaning.
  • Influenza positive gilts at entry were associated with positive piglets at weaning.
  • More work is needed to assess herd closure, gilt isolation and gilt vaccination.

83 farms from 2 different pig production companies and located in Iowa, Minnesota and South Dakota were enrolled in this study. Samples were collected at weaning on a monthly basic for a little less than 6 years as part of routine surveillance programs. The majority of farms submitted 4 oral fluid samples per month but some collected nasal swabs or oro-pharyngeal swabs.

23% of the samples tested positive for influenza allowing the collection of 173 hemagglutinin sequences. In the H1 hemagglutinin subtype, isolates were 93.8% to 99% similar between each other and 94.3% to 97.4% similar to the vaccine strains. The largest discrepancy was found in the delta 1 clade. In the H3 hemagglutinin subtype, isolates were 95.9 to 99.7% similar among each other and 997.3% to 97.5% similar to the vaccine strains.

influenza factors for piglet positive at weaning

The influenza status of the piglets at weaning was influenced by several factors.

Seasons and vaccination status of the sows against influenza influenced piglet infection status at weaning. Indeed, sow influenza vaccination was significantly associated  with a decreased probability of piglets testing influenza positive at weaning. Both whole-herd and pre-farrow vaccination protocols were better compared to no vaccination and there were no differences between both protocols. Additionally, having influenza positive gilts at entry increased the probability of detecting positive piglets at weaning.

Among all the factors evaluated, sow influenza vaccination and gilt influenza status at entry were the only factors associated with influenza in piglets at weaning in Midwestern breed-to-wean farms.

Abstract

Breed-to-wean pig farms play an important role in spreading influenza A virus (IAV) because suckling piglets maintain, diversify and transmit IAV at weaning to other farms. Understanding the nature and extent of which farm factors drive IAV infection in piglets is a prerequisite to reduce the burden of influenza in swine. We evaluated the association between IAV infection in piglets at weaning and farm factors including farm features, herd management practices and gilt- and piglet-specific management procedures performed at the farm. Voluntarily enrolled breed-to-wean farms (n = 83) agreed to share IAV diagnostic testing and farm data from July 2011 through March 2017 including data obtained via the administration of a survey. There were 23% IAV RT-PCR positive samples of the 12,814 samples submitted for IAV testing within 2989 diagnostic submissions with 30% positive submissions. Among all the factors evaluated (n = 24), and considering the season-adjusted multivariable analysis, only sow IAV vaccination and gilt IAV status at entry significantly reduced (p-value<0.05) IAV infections in piglets at weaning. Results from this study indicate that veterinarians and producers could manage these identified factors to reduce the burden of influenza in piglets prior to wean and perhaps, reduce the spread of IAV to other farms and people.

Read the entire publication on the journal website.