This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.
This week we are sharing a report by Dr. Daniel Linhares’ lab at Iowa State University. The report summarizes the findings of his study regarding the factors making a sow farm vulnerable for PPRS introduction.
A model to quantify and identify biosecurity vulnerability in breeding herds is now available.
Events related to swine movements, transmission by air and water, and people movements were the variables most associated with PRRS outbreak.
Biosecurity vulnerability scores may help producers/veterinarians prioritize biosecurity investments.
Herd-specific biosecurity assessments are needed to determine herd-specific risk for PRRS outbreaks. Thus, we developed and validated a biosecurity vulnerability score (BVS) that measures the relative vulnerability of swine breeding herds to PRRSv introduction. The BVS was based on a multi-criteria decision algorithm that ranked risk events associated with outbreaks. A comprehensive biosecurity assessment was used to obtain information of the biosecurity practices from each participating herd. The practices performed in each herd were weighted by the relative importance of each event obtained from an expert opinion panel resulting in a score that identifies the events that should be prioritized. In two independent data sets, the scores consistently revealed that farms with higher scores had a higher frequency of PRRS outbreaks. In addition, results suggest that events related to swine movements,transmission by air and water, and people movements should be prioritized.
We are developing a new screening tool to validate the minimum number of questions associated with frequency of PRRS outbreak. Study farms will be asked to fill out a short survey. This can help producers and veterinarians to identify sites at relatively higher risk of PRRSv introduction.
To enroll or to request additional clarification please contact: Gustavo Silva at Iowa State University (gustavos-at-iastate.edu)
There is significant within farm PRRS time-to-stability variation.
Several factors contribute to PRRS time-to-stability variability; however, there is still a significant amount of unexplained variability.
The role of within farm management practices and internal biosecurity measures should be further explored.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) stability is reached when no evidence of infection is observed in wean-age piglets. Sample size to detect PRRS virus in wean-age piglets usually involves blood sampling of 30 piglets, at least four times, 30 days apart (Holtkamp et al., 2011). The cumulative time from the intervention (i.e. whole herd exposure, herd closure) to PRRS stability is usually referred to as time-to-stability (TTS).
Here we summarize differences in TTS in MSHMP participating farms located in the Midwest that have had at least two PRRS outbreaks.
Six systems that are similar in the way they test to classify a herd as stable were selected for inclusion in the study. PRRS outbreaks reported from 2011 to 2017 were used for analysis.
TTS was defined as the time period from the date of outbreak reporting to the date when PRRS stability was reported (last consecutive negative PCR result). To assess the variability in TTS, only farms that had at least two PRRS outbreaks were selected.
Overall, 133 PRRS outbreaks in 53 farms were recorded withtwo, three, four and five outbreaks in 35, 11, 5, 2 farms, respectively. The median TTS standard deviation of PRRS outbreaks within the same farm was 12 weeks (minimum = 0 weeks, maximum=88 weeks).
After accounting for the effect of the intervention using MLV or FVI, the RFLP pattern of the virus associated with the outbreak and previous PRRS outbreaks in the farm, the PRRS time-to-stability correlation of outbreaks in the same farm and system was only 1.2%.
In other words, TTS of two given outbreaks in the same farm were not correlated indicating that TTS within farm is highly variable.
There is a high TTS variability after a PRRS outbreak within the same farm that is not accounted for by the effect of the intervention used, the virus (i.e RFLP), previous PRRS outbreaks in the farm and system.
In this publication in Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Drs. Valdes-Donoso from UC Davis and Andres Perez from the Center of Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) at the University of Minnesota, measured the impact of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) on the production of weaned pigs.
To do so, they monitored 16 different sow farms, all parts of a single production system in the Midwest for 48 weeks and recorded a total of 8 indicators:
number of weaned pigs
number of stillbirths per litter
number of live births per litter
number of pre-weaned dead
number of sows farrowing
number of sows repeating service
number of sows aborting
number of sows dead
For each farm and each indicator, the 12 weeks before the outbreak served as a baseline for the farm performances and the data was recorded until 35 weeks post outbreaks. All of the outbreaks occurred during the second half of 2014. The inventory of the farms varied between 2,714 and 6,009 breeding females.
The following figure represented the weekly average for the 8 recorded parameters from 12 weeks pre-outbreak to 35-weeks post-outbreak.
Based on these results, it was estimated that a PRRS outbreak caused a 7.4% decrease in weaned pigs per sow year, i.e., 1.92 fewer weaned pigs per breeding unit. In an average sized farm of this firm, the slight reduction in farrowing yielded a decline of 249 fewer farrows per year. The chances that a sow repeats service increased by 37%, while aborted fetuses increased by 26% in a year with a PRRS outbreak.
The primary estimate (using 12 weeks as pre-outbreak period) is that PRRS reduced weaned pig production per farm by 7.4% on an annual basis, leading to a decrease in output value per sow year of $86.6, or $367,521 per farm year for an average sized farm. If instead we assume the outbreak began in t −1 (i.e., using 11 weeks as pre-outbreak period), the estimated reduction in weaned pig production was 7.6%, or $88.8 less per sow year and an average revenue loss of $376,773 among the farms studied.
Results showed that weaned pig production declined in week t − 1, although statistically insignificant, as did several performance indicators. The data suggest that the average PRRS outbreak in this set of farms began at least one week before it was announced.”
The rise in abortions was the strongest signal of PRRSV activity in our data. Increased surveillance, particularly to rising abortions, may allow farms to identify PRRS more quickly.
The length of PRRS outbreaks, as well as their effects over time, is highly variable. The results of this study demonstrate that PRRS has a negative effect on weaned pig production for a longer time than previously estimated. Indeed, the estimated means of weaned pig production remained below the baseline throughout the 35 weeks that we are able to observe following the outbreak.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an endemic disease causing important economic losses to the US swine industry. The complex epidemiology of the disease, along with the diverse clinical outputs observed in different types of infected farms, have hampered efforts to quantify PRRS’ impact on production over time. We measured the impact of PRRS on the production of weaned pigs using a log-linear fixed effects model to evaluate longitudinal data collected from 16 sow farms belonging to a specific firm. We measured seven additional indicators of farm performance to gain insight into disease dynamics. We used pre-outbreak longitudinal data to establish a baseline that was then used to estimate the decrease in production. A significant rise of abortions in the week before the outbreak was reported was the strongest signal of PRRSV activity. In addition, production declined slightly one week before the outbreak and then fell markedly until weeks 5 and 6 post-outbreak. Recovery was not monotonic, cycling gently around a rising trend. At the end of the study period (35 weeks post-outbreak), neither the production of weaned pigs nor any of the performance indicators had fully recovered to baseline levels. This result suggests PRSS outbreaks may last longer than has been found in most other studies. We assessed PRRS’ effect on farm efficiency as measured by changes in sow production of weaned pigs per year. We translated production losses into revenue losses assuming an average market price of $45.2/weaned pig. We estimate that the average PRSS outbreak reduced production by approximately 7.4%, relative to annual output in the absence of an outbreak. PRRS reduced production by 1.92 weaned pigs per sow when adjusted to an annual basis. This decrease is substantially larger than the 1.44 decrease of weaned pigs per sow/year reported elsewhere.
The objectives of the study are to describe the occurrence of PRRSv in the filtered sow herd population within MSHMP and to assess the associations between farm-level factors and the introduction of PRRSv into filtered sow herds. The results of the study may guide practitioners and veterinarians to modify their management and biosecurity practices in filtered sow herds.
Who can enroll?
All filtered sow herds of MSHMP participants will be eligible for the study. The database will be used together with the PRRSv incidence measure to understand occurrence of PRRS before and after filters were installed. A survey has been created to collect farm specific data such as:
Date when herd was filtered
Type of ventilation (negative or positive)
Back draft prevention methodology
Type of pre-filter and filter
Pre-filter and filter replacement frequency
Number of barns and load outs
Frequency of gilt introduction and weaning events
If you are interested in participating, please contact Dr. Cesar Corzo at corzo(at)umn.edu
Earlier this year, Dr. Fabian Chamba Pardo successfully defended his PhD under the supervision of Drs. Montse Torremorell and Marie Culhane. The focus of his thesis is influenza epidemiology with an emphasis on sow farms and nurseries. We share with you today a summary of his work.
Influenza is an economically important disease in pigs and a public health threat. Breed-to-wean (BTW) farms play a central role in influenza epidemiology and control because piglets maintain and disseminate influenza A virus (IAV) to other farms. Despite the importance of piglets in influenza epidemiology, there is limited information on IAV infection parameters in piglets, risk factors that impact IAV prevalence in piglets at weaning, and how strategies that are implemented in BTW farms affect IAV infections in weaned pigs.
In this thesis, my goal was to address some of the questions that are central to the transmission and control of influenza in BTW farms, especially infection in piglets ready to wean. The questions addressed are also critical to guide control strategies to mitigate IAV infections in the post weaning period. More specifically, I aimed to: 1) estimate herd-level prevalence and seasonality of influenza in BTW farms, 2) evaluate farm factors associated with IAV infection in piglets at weaning, 3) assess transmission patterns and parameters of influenza in nursery pigs based on IAV prevalence at weaning, and 4) evaluate the impact of maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) at weaning on IAV infection parameters in nursery pigs.
Research Chapter 1
Influenza herd-level prevalence and seasonality in breed-to-wean pig farms in the Midwestern United States
Results showed that IAV herd-level prevalence in piglets at weaning from Midwestern BTW farms is seasonal with higher infection rates in winter (December) and spring (May) than those in summer and fall. Additionally, influenza seasonality was partially explained by the seasonal variations of outdoor air absolute humidity and temperature. Finally, there was significant genetic diversity of influenza strains circulating in those farms and that, co-circulation of more than one genetically distinct clade over time was very common in the studied farms. This is critical knowledge that may help to identify high risk periods where influenza control measures can be placed. It may also help to create research opportunities on absolute humidity and influenza transmission in pigs and finally, it supports other studies that have shown that genetic diversity and circulation is wide and common and that new vaccines and vaccination strategies should take that into consideration.
Research Chapter 2
Breed-to-wean farm factors associated with influenza A virus infection in piglets at weaning
In this chapter, there were 24 farm factors evaluated for their association with influenza at weaning and among those, only IAV sow vaccination and the IAV-negative status of replacement breeding females (gilts) at entry to the herd were significantly associated with less IAV infected piglets at weaning. This is critical information that veterinarians and producers may use to manage IAV levels at weaning. In addition, there was also a lack of significant association with factors such as air filtration and farm density which may be indicative that endemic influenza infections are more important than airborne lateral transmissions between farms. Finally, disease control strategies such as herd closure, early weaning, batch farrowing, gilt isolation and gilt influenza vaccination were not fully evaluated in this study. Hence, more work is needed to further understand how to use these strategies to decrease influenza infections in pigs.
Research Chapter 3
Influenza A virus transmission patterns and parameters in growing pigs
Results indicate that groups of piglets with different prevalence at weaning had different transmission patterns and parameters after weaning and these patterns were characterized by 1, 2 or no peaks of infection after weaning. Piglets with low prevalence at weaning had less influenza infections in the nursery. This information may help producers and veterinarians to make informed decisions when it comes to use control strategies such as sow vaccination aimed to reduce influenza infections in the nursery.
Research Chapter 4
Effect of maternally-derived antibodies on influenza A virus infection in growing pigs
In my last chapter, I reported that if pigs had high levels of strain-specific maternally-derived antibodies at weaning, IAV infection occurred later and it was of shorter duration after weaning. Piglets with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers of 1:40 or higher were less likely to test IAV positive at weaning and during the nursery. These results indicate that strain-specific maternally-derived antibodies generated with sow vaccination pre-farrow significantly reduce influenza infections at weaning and in the nursery.
Knowledge of influenza seasonality and what factors are significantly associated with influenza in breed-to-wean farms can help producers and veterinarians to better use and allocate influenza control strategies such as sow vaccination. In addition, lower prevalence of influenza at weaning due to high strain-specific maternally-derived antibodies levels may help decrease influenza spread from wean-to-finish farms. Reducing the burden of influenza in growing pigs should decrease influenza-associated economic losses and the generation of novel strains, including strains with pandemic potential. More studies are needed to further elucidate control strategies to limit influenza infections and spread in pigs.