This is our Friday rubric: every week a new Science Page from the Bob Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project. The previous editions of the science page are available on our website.
This week, we are sharing a report by Zhen Yang a DVM/MS candidate at the UMN, regarding the Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of PCV3 from clinical samples in US swine farms.
- PCV3 is widespread in the U.S.
- Abortion cases in the study had a high rate of PCV3 positivity.
- PCV3 found in association with lesions in an abortion case suggesting causality.
The study looked at 730 cases from the UMN Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory with a positive sample for PCV3, received between Feb 2016 and Jan 2018.
Out of 22 states, 18 states were PCV3 positive. PCV3 was detected in pigs from all ages.
The positive rate among fetus, piglets, nursery and finishing pigs ranged from 15% to 20%. The PCV3 rate in adults was 35%.
PCV3/PCV2 co-infection rate was 5.2%, and PCV3/PRRSV coͲinfection rate was 7.6%.
In our data, we had 67 abortion cases, and 40% of them were PCV3 positive. In one abortion case investigation, histological lesions were observed in lung tissue of aborted fetus and PCV3 in-situ hybridization showed presence of PCV3 in the lesion.
Seven PCV3 whole genome sequences were obtained. Current PCV3 genomes in the U.S shared over 98% nucleotide identities. U.S strains did not cluster together and were grouped with PCV3 sequences obtained in other countries.
This is a new research paper from the MycoLab under Dr. Maria Pieters’ supervision. In this study, the group looked at the infection dynamics and genetic variability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in self-replacement gilts, in 3 positive herds. Serum samples were taken from the gilts at 150 days of age onward and laryngeal swabs were collected from the gilts and their progeny.
Highlights of this project
- Genetic variability of M. hyopneumoniae was evaluated using MLVA typing.
- The highest M. hyopneumoniae prevalence in gilts was detected at 150 days of age.
- Detection patterns for M.hyopneumoniae were different among farms.
- Genetic variability was identified within and among farms.
The aim of this study was to assess the longitudinal pattern of M. hyopneumoniae detection in self-replacement gilts at various farms and to characterize the genetic diversity among samples. A total of 298 gilts from three M. hyopneumoniae positive farms were selected at 150 days of age (doa). Gilts were tested for M. hyopneumoniae antibodies by ELISA, once in serum at 150 doa and for M. hyopneumoniae detection in laryngeal swabs by real time PCR two or three times. Also, 425 piglets were tested for M. hyopneumoniae detection in laryngeal swabs. A total of 103 samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats Analysis. Multiple comparison tests were performed and adjusted using Bonferroni correction to compare prevalence of positive gilts by ELISA and real time PCR. Moderate to high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in gilts was detected at 150 doa, which decreased over time, and different detection patterns were observed among farms. Dam-to-piglet transmission of M. hyopneumoniae was not detected. The characterization of M. hyopneumoniae showed 17 different variants in all farms, with two identical variants detected in two of the farms. ELISA testing showed high prevalence of seropositive gilts at 150 doa in all farms. Results of this study showed that circulation of M. hyopneumoniae in self-replacement gilts varied among farms, even under similar production and management conditions. In addition, the molecular variability of M. hyopneumoniae detected within farms suggests that in cases of minimal replacement gilt introduction bacterial diversity maybe farm specific.